Public Search of Virtual Herbarium

Public Search of Virtual Herbarium

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Virtual Herbarium
<p>The mission to build a virtual herbarium to display the images of Brazilian plants that are housed in foreign herbaria was presented by the <strong>Brazilian Research Council</strong> (CNPq) to the <strong>Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden</strong> (JBRJ) in December 2010. The objective was to provide capacity to store and display high quality data regarding Brazil's Flora within a public institution. The initial partners of this initiative are the herbaria <strong>K (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew)</strong> and <strong>P/PC (Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris)</strong>, whose images are currently added to the ones from the RB (JBRJ) herbarium. Other European and American herbaria were included in this initiative from 2014 onwards, with the support of <a href="">SiBBr</a> (Sistema de Informação sobre a Biodiversidade Brasileira), namely <strong>Missouri Botanical Garden</strong> (MO), <strong>The New York Botanical Garden</strong> (NY), <strong>Naturhistorisches Museum Wien</strong> (W) and <strong>Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet</strong> (S). In addition to European and American herbaria, Brazilian herbaria have also begun the publication of their images and data in the Reflora Virtual Herbarium in 2014. With the support of <a href="">IFN</a> (National Forest Inventory), <a href="">SiBBr</a> and the <a href="">Reflora Programme</a>, numerous herbaria are receiving equipment and training to digitise their plant specimens. The Brazilian herbaria included to date are: <strong>Herbário Alexandre Leal Costa</strong> (ALCB), <strong>Herbário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe</strong> (ASE), <strong>Herbário da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia</strong> (CEN), <strong>Herbário do Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau </strong>(CEPEC), <strong>Herbário Prisco Bezerra</strong> (EAC), <strong>Herbário da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz</strong> (ESA), <strong>Herbário do Departamento de Botânica da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina</strong> (FLOR), <strong>Herbário Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein</strong> (FURB), <strong>Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues</strong> (HBR), <strong>Herbário do Departamento de Ciências Florestais da Universidade de Santa Maria</strong> (HDCF), <strong>Herbarium Uberlandense </strong>(HUFU), <strong>Herbário do Museu Botânico Municipal</strong> (MBM), <strong>Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi</strong> (MG), <strong>Herbário Rondoniense</strong> (RON), <strong>Herbário da Universidade de São Paulo</strong> (SPF), <strong>Herbário da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte </strong>(UFRN), <strong>Herbário do Departamento de Botânica da Universidade Federal do Paraná</strong> (UPCB), <strong>Herbário Central da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo</strong> (VIES).<br /><br />The <strong>Reflora Virtual Herbarium</strong> is designed to allow taxonomists to perform similar procedures to those they are accustomed to undertaking with respect to the physical collections. In this site they will access, rather than physical herbarium specimens, high quality images that can be consulted, re-determined and annotated with nomenclatural status, amongst other functionalities. In due course, the curators of the partner institutes will receive periodic and on-demand system reports and will be able to update data in their own collections.<br /><br />This innovative system was launched in 2013 with images available for study and update by a group of over 500 taxonomists that are actively participating in the <strong><a href=""> List of Species of the Brazilian Flora</a></strong>. The number of samples available in the <strong>Reflora Virtual Herbarium</strong> will grow weekly and by the end of 2015 we expect to have over a million images online to be accessed by the botanical community and also by the general public. Future partnerships are currently being forged with other national and international institutions so that as many as possible of the Brazilian specimens deposited overseas can have their images and data repatriated, while participating Brazilian herbaria can use the facility to display their data online.<br /><br />To date, <span style="color: #008000;"><strong>1390218</strong></span> images of plant specimens are available at the <strong>Reflora Virtual Herbarium</strong>, from which <span style="color: #008000;"><strong>128667</strong></span> are nomenclatural types and <span style="color: #008000;"><strong>273141</strong></span> are georeferenced.<br /><br />If you are a trained taxonomist and would like to collaborate in the <strong>Reflora Virtual Herbarium</strong>, send us an e-mail request. If you are a curator and would like to have the images and data from your herbarium available in the Reflora Virtual Herbarium, please contact us. It will be a pleasure to make your initiative possible.</p>

How to Cite

Reflora - Virtual Herbarium. Available at: Accessed on

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

Coordinator: Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

Alessandra Maria de Andrade, Andressa Novaes Lima, Bernard Carvalho Bandeira, Bruna Carla Pires Margiotte, Bruno Henrique Gonçalves de Oliveira, Caroline Correa Cabanillas, Celso Campos da Silva Júnior, Cláudia Caliari, Diego Alvarenga Torres Duarte, Eduardo Couto Dalcin, Eline dos Santos Pereira da Silva, Elton Nascimento de Ataide, Erika Von Sohsten Medeiros, Fabiana Luiza Ranzato Filardi, Fernanda Faria Sartori, Gisela Cristina Suisso das Chagas Ferreira, Isa Helena Bravim Tinoco, João Paulo Santos Condack, Liana Batista de Carvalho, Luana Silva Braucks Calazans, Luis Alexandre Estevão da Silva, Marco Antonio Palomares Accardo Filho, Maria Marta Vianna de Moraes, Mariana Oliveira de Biase, Mariana Taniguchi, Marília Carolina Ferreira, Marli Pires Morim, Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira, Neusa Tamaio, Paula Moraes Leitman, Rafael Oliveira Lima, Regina Bastos Monteiro, Renato Maximo de Almeida Pizarro Drummond, Sara Martins da Silva, Silvana Helena Nascimento Monteiro, Thiago Erir Cadete Meneguzzo, Vitor Faria Monteiro, Wanderson Lopes da Silva, Wellington Braga.

Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia, COPPE

Coordinator: Geraldo Zimbrão, Jano Moreira de Souza, Marco Aniceto Vaz

César de Farias Barbosa, Charles Gomes Chang, Danielle Caled Vieira, Fernando Vinicius Duarte Magalhães, Filipe Braida do Carmo, Gabriel de Souza Pereira, Hugo Diniz Rebelo, Igor Cunha Bragança, Juliana Gomes Chang, Kleyton Pontes Cotta, Leonardo Duarte de Almeida de Azeredo, Marcos Gabriel de Surrage Mannarino Loures; Marcus Vinicius de Jesus Ibraim, Pedro Henrique Conilh de Beyssac Ramos, Rafael Vieira da Costa Alves, Raul Sena Ferreira, Victor Marinho Furtado, Victor Pedro Correia da Silva.

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris

Coordinator: Marc Pignal

Bérangère Offroy, Bérenger Dulac, Bruno Dennetière, Claudia Gonçalves, Lionel Kervran, Mohamed Berkani, Simon Chagnoux, Virginie Bouetel.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Coordinator: Eimear Nic Lughadha

Aaron Davis, Alan Paton, Andre Schuiteman, Anna Saltmarsh, Alex Roberts, Bente Klitgaard , Bob Allkin, Caitlin McLaughin, Cátia Canteiro, Charlie Tanner, Chris Jones, Craig Brough, Daniela Zappi, David Goyder, David Simpson, Elizabeth Woodgyer, Eve Lucas, Felix Forest, Gemma Bramley, Gill Challen, Gwilym Lewis, Iain Darbyshire, Ji Luo, Jonathan Krieger, Julia Carretero, Katherine O'Donnell, Kiri Ross-Jones, Kristina Patmore, Laura Green, Lesley Walsingham, Lowri Watkins, Maria Alvarez, Maria Vorontsova, Marie-Hélène Weech, Martin Cheek, Megan Gimber, Melanie Thomas, Nicholas Hind, Oliver Wilson, Paul Wilkin, Paula Rudall, Richard Boyne, Rosa Botterill, Sérgio Henriques, Shahina Ghazanfar, Sofia Sumal, Sue Zmarzty, Weibke Hillebrecht, William Milliken.

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

The Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (JBRJ) was founded in 1808 by D. João VI to serve as an acclimatization garden to enable Portugal to introduce spices and other cash crops from the East Indies, such as vanilla, cinnamon, tea, and pepper to Brazil. In 1824, Friar Leandro do Sacramento, one of the most important Brazilian botanists of his time, became its first Director, launching the institution on the world stage as a centre of reference for the study of the Brazilian Flora. After his death in 1829 and due to a financial crisis, JRBJ was taken over by Rio de Janeiro's Imperial Agricultural Institute (IIFA) for a period of 29 years. This institute seeked to improve the agricultural panorama of the country, and set about building facilities such as the planting of an arboretum, the development of agronomy trials in areas neighbouring the garden, and building large plant nurseries with countless different foreign and native species. The garden also published a periodical, the Revista Agrícola, a pioneer publication aiming to disseminate information regarding implementation and modernization of rural activities.

Brazilian naturalist João Barbosa Rodrigues became director of JBRJ in 1890, and his wide experience, knowledge and passion were fundamental to increase the research activities of the institution. Within the same year he founded the library and the botanical museum, as well as the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Gardens Herbarium (RB), with an initial collection of 25 thousand specimens gifted by the Brazilian Emperor, D. Pedro II. Barbosa Rodrigues' tenure was to last nearly 20 years, and during this time he created the post of "travelling naturalist", for which he employed qualified professionals in charge of collecting plants throughout the country, augmenting JBRJ's scientific collections.
The RB Herbarium collection continued to grow through the XX century, with the oustanding contributions of several eminent botanists, such as Adolpho Ducke, Johan Löfgren, João Geraldo Kuhlmann, Paulo Campos Porto and Alexander Curt Brade. Scientific expeditions to diverse areas of Brazil and exchange programmes with national and foreign institutes were intensified, enhancing the collections and increasing the scientific significance of JBRJ for the study of the Brazilian Flora.
A center-piece of the research carried out at JBRJ, the Herbarium RB is one of the largest botanical collections in Brazil, being constantly under study by both Brazilian and foreign researchers interested in Neotropical Botany as well as other related subjects. School and university students also visit RB to learn about the importance of biological collections in such a biodiverse country.
RB is organized by taxonomic groups and houses collections of Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Ferns and Lycophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. As well as pressed and dried specimens there are ancillary collections including wood, carpological, photographs, DNA bank, etnobotanical and spirit collection, adding up to nearly 600 thousand items. Amongst these, the most important specimens are the nomenclatural types, nearing 12 thousand images already available online in the JSTOR site. Collection digitisation started in 2005 and the general public can consult it through the JBRJ site . From March 2012, the JBRJ, as part of the REFLORA/CNPq Programme, started the complete image capture of its collections. The next challenge will be to include microscope slides from the wood collection, and also the Bryophyte, Fungi and Lichen collections.

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris

Founded in 1793, during the French Revolution, the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle (MNHN) incorporates older collections and experience from an older institution, the King's Garden (Jardin du Roy), created by Louis XIII during the XVII century. A research institute by excellency, it is the home of the first evolution theory elaborated Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, and the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel.

Both the "Jardin du Roy" and the Muséum national carried out many circumnavegation explorations of the world in order to discover natural treasures. The travels of Bougainville and his companion, botanist Philibert Commerson, who arrived at Rio de Janeiro on 21st June 1767 and discovered and described the stunning and horticulturally valuable genus Bougainvillea.
The Muséum de Paris is a public institute with the fundamental mission of conservation of its scientific colelctions (over 62 million specimens), the diffusion of scientific culture, fundamental and applied research, education and development of scientific knowledge.
The Paris National Herbarium (P) houses nearly 9 milion specimens that are available for study by scientists worldwide who aim to describe plant biodiversity. Within this collection there are nearly 400 thousand nomenclatural-types, and important collections of several naturalists that collected in Brazil, such Auguste de Saint-Hilaire, Glaziou, Claussen, Vauthier, Gaudichaud, among others.
The P herbarium was refurbished between 2010 and 2012, and its collections were restored and transferred to new cabinets following a newer classification, passing from the XIX century Bentham & Hooker system to the APG3 classification). In order to make the collection more accessible, the general collections of Angiosperms, Ferns and Macroalgae were thoroughly digitised. Today, over 6 million images are available for consultation in the site of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
These images will become available soon in a new national French infrastructure called e-ReColNat that will present a virtual interface to allow the researchers to use appropriate tools to work with herbarium images online. The Sonnerat/BryoMyco database of the MNHN comprises millions of records, as the data digitisation of the museum collections started at the end of the 1980s. Such data are available in the GBIF site.
The museum is proud to make available all the images collected in Brazil housed at the MNHN, comprising between 250 and 300 thousand specimens. Once the specimens are selected through specific tools developed by the MNHN, a team from the JBRJ enters label data using the images. It is intended to expand this collaboration to include all plants housed at P collected in South America. The Paris National Herbarium receives many researchers that take part of the Reflora Programme that develop systematic research in Brazilian and South American plants. While developing their systematic or historic research, they select Brazilian specimens and list the barcodes that will be sent to JBRJ.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has a rich horticultural and scientific history which extends over more than 250 years. Kew is home to the world's largest and most diverse botanical collections, including 19 world class reference collections encompassing living plants and seeds, preserved plant and fungal specimens, artefacts of plant origin, DNA samples, a comprehensive botanical library, an unrivalled collection of botanical artwork and Kew's archives documenting the history of botanical discovery in many parts of the globe. These collections, together with the expertise of the scientific and horticultural staff that curate them, underpin Kew's mission to inspire and deliver science-based plant conservation worldwide, enhancing the quality of life.

The Herbarium at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew is one of the most important in the world, with an estimated 6 to 7 million dried, preserved plant specimens which collectively document the diversity and history of plant life across the world. Some 300,000 of these specimens are nomenclatural types, representing the original material on which a description of a species new to science was based, and fixing the application of that scientific name unambiguously for the future. The type specimens are filed together with the other herbarium material in a systematic sequence, by plant family and genus and then by geographical area. The whole collection is currently being resequenced to reflect current scientific understanding of the evolutionary history of plants.
Kew is committed to making this important collection more accessible to others for study and use in a diversity of projects on biodiversity, conservation, sustainable development and systematic. The Herbarium welcomes many visitors each week including members of the general public, university students and researchers making study visits of just a day or two or as much as a year. Increasingly, the herbarium collections can also be studied by those unable to visit Kew, as high resolution images of a small but growing proportion of the herbarium collection are captured and made available through a variety of online portals. Over the past decade, an electronic Herbarium Catalogue has been developed and populated with images of the specimens and information from their collection labels. More than 600,000 specimens are now included in the Herbarium Catalogue with almost 300,000 of these being represented by high resolution images. All of this material is also available via GBIF, while subsets are available via other online resources including Global Plants and Europeana. Since June 2012 Brazil's Reflora programme has been enabling the imaging of much of the Brazilian material deposited at Kew for incorporation in Brazil's new Virtual Herbarium.
The herbarium collections at Kew have been estimated to include some 250,000 to 400,000 herbarium specimens originating from Brazil. These range from collections by celebrated British naturalists such as Burchell, Gardner and Spruce as well as twentieth century material collected by Harley, Lewis, Mayo, Milliken and Zappi. Most of the more recent collections are represented by duplicates in one or more Brazilian herbaria but for material collected before 1970 this is less often the case.
The Reflora team at Kew is working systematically through the collections, locating and imaging all the pre-1970 material from Brazil along with a geographical selection of the post-1970 collections. The objective is to ensure that every Brazilian species represented in the herbarium at Kew is included in the Virtual Herbarium and that comprehensive coverage is achieved for historic material and all but the most common species. The images are sent to our partners at JBRJ where the data capture team carefully transcribe the label data for inclusion in the Virtual Herbarium. The Reflora team also provides support to dozens of Brazilian researchers who visit Kew within the Reflora programme and contribute content for the Virtual Herbarium.

Missouri Botanical Garden

"To discover and share knowledge about plants and their environment in order to preserve and enrich life." – Missouri Botanical Garden mission

The Garden is a center for botanical research and science education, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis. The Garden offers 79 acres of beautiful horticultural display, including a 14-acre Japanese strolling garden, Henry Shaw's original 1850 estate home, and one of the world's largest collections of rare and endangered orchids.
For over 154 years, the Garden has been an oasis in the city, a place of beauty and family fun—and also a center for education, science, and conservation.
The Missouri Botanical Garden’s Herbarium is one of the world’s outstanding research resources for specimens and information on bryophytes and vascular plants. The collection is limited to these two major groups of plants. As of 1 January 2013 the collection contained 6.37 million specimens (5.8 million vascular plants and 538,000 bryophytes).
As an aid for research in molecular phylogenetics the Herbarium maintains a collection of material specifically intended for DNA extraction. Botanists at the Missouri Botanical Garden collect leaf samples, preserve them in silica gel and store them at -20º C. Because the samples are carefully prepared and stored, they are likely to give better yields of higher quality DNA than herbarium material. To date, nearly 11,000 samples have been catalogued and are available for distribution. The catalog of this material is available online.
A collection of about 4,000 accessions of liquid preserved plant parts is also available for consultation and study. These plant materials represent a diverse array of families, but are concentrated in groups that have been the special research interests of the Garden staff.
TROPICOS, the world's largest database of plant information, contains fully web-searchable records for over 1.2 million plant names and nearly 4.1 million specimens. Over 200,000 plant images are also linked to their records in TROPICOS.
The Library is located on the 4th floor of the Monsanto Center (4500 Shaw Blvd.). The general collection consists of more than 200,000 volumes of monographs and journals. More than 800 current periodicals are received through subscription and on exchange. The main emphasis of the collection is on plant taxonomic literature, current and retrospective, collected in all languages. Other special collections include: over 3,000 reference works; 1,100 Sturtevant Pre-Linnaean volumes; 4,000 post-1753 rare books; over 1,000 folio volumes; the personal collections of Ewan (11,000 books), Steere (1,000 volumes), and Niederlander (600 volumes); 7,000 items of botanical art; map and atlas collection (over 7,000 items); and microfiche (45,000 fiche).
The Archives includes more than 3,000 linear feet of Garden records and publications, professional and personal papers, historic manuscripts, Garden photographs, oral histories, original artwork from Garden publications, and architectural drawings. Noteworthy are the personal papers of Henry Shaw, including letters, account books, diaries, and legal papers documenting his business transactions and the development of the Garden. The George Engelmann Papers, numbering some

The New York Botanical Garden

The William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden (NY) was founded in 1896 by Nathaniel and Elizabeth Britton. NY is a National Systematics Research Resource Center containing approximately 7.4 million specimens. Largest in the Western Hemisphere, NY is among the top three herbaria worldwide in number of accessions.  Approximately 5.3 million specimens are vascular plants, 1.1 million are bryophytes (mosses and hepatics), 800,000 are fungi (including lichens) and 160,000 are algae. Rich in both historical and recent collections, the geographical emphasis has always been on the flora and mycota of the New World. We estimate that 3.1 million specimens are from North America, 3.1 million are from tropical America, and the remaining 1.1 million are from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific region.

Throughout its 120 years of existence, NY has grown steadily through collections made by staff members and collaborators, exchange, and incorporation of orphaned herbaria. The collection is a key resource for the international research community. Nearly all major taxonomic revisions and inventories of plants and fungi of the Americas and parts of the Old World cite specimens deposited in this herbarium, making it one of the most frequently consulted in the world. Because of the great numbers of specimens sent on loan, sent as gifts to specialists for identification, and examined by in-person visitors or users of the NY Virtual Herbarium a significant number of specimens bear authoritative, recent annotations.

Administered by the Institute of Research Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden
Developed by COPPETEC-UFRJ